Friday, September 9, 2011

Types of treatment

Various types of programs offer help in drug rehabilitation, including: residential treatment (in-patient), out-patient, local support groups, extended care centers, and recovery or sober houses. Some rehab centers offer age- and gender-specific programs.
In a survey of treatment providers from three separate institutions (the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors, Rational Recovery Systems and the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors) measuring the treatment provider's responses on the Spiritual Belief Scale (a scale measuring belief in the four spiritual characteristics AA identified by Ernest Kurtz); the scores were found to explain 41% of the variance in the treatment provider's responses on the Addiction Belief Scale (a scale measuring adherence to the disease model or the free-will model addiction).
Scientific research since 1970 shows that effective treatment attends multiple needs of the addict person and not just his or her drug abuse. In addition, medically assisted detoxification is only the first stage of treatment and it does not help much to change long-term drug abuse. Professionals from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) recommend medication and behavioral therapy combined, as important elements of a therapeutic process that begins with detoxification, follows with treatment and doesn't set aside relapse prevention, since this is essential to maintain the positive effects of therapy. Therefore, every kind of treatment should address all aspects of a patient's life: medical and mental health services; as well as follow-up options, such as community of family based recovery support systems. Drug and alcohol treatment centers provide medication, guidance and the right environment needed, with doctors and staff qualified to provide help and support to patients and assist them with their habits rather well. Despite of this, patients are expected to also desire to break free from these addictions, since after rehabilitation they will reincorporate into society. The alcohol and drug treatment administered to a patient will depend on the level and intensity of addiction. Therefore, if the patient is strongly addicted to the substance,many centers provide facilities as the ones listed at the beginning: residential treatment , recovery houses and sober houses. Other centers may aim to a more general addiction and work better with counseling and other similar strategies.
For individuals addicted to prescription drugs, treatments tend to be similar to those who are addicted to drugs affecting the same brain systems. Hence, medication like buprenorphine and behavioral therapies for stimulant and Central Nervous System depressant addiction are often used. Among behavioral therapies there are: Cognitive-behavioral therapy: a method that helps patients to recognize, avoid and cope with situations in which they are most likely to relapse. Multidimensional family therapy: designed to improve family functioning as well as the member who has drug abuse problems. Motivational interviewing: emphasizes on the willingness of patients to change their behavior and enter treatment. Motivational incentives: This method takes advantage of positive reinforcement to encourage abstinence from the addictive substance. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration has provided a list of programs and institutions that offer diverse treatments according to the age group, type of addiction and other aspects. Among these programs can be found: Partners for Recovery (PFR), Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT), Recovery Community Services Program (RCSP), and the National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare (NCSACW).

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